(Cerebrovascular Accident; CVA; Cerebral Infarct)
A stroke happens when blood supply to an area of the brain is stopped. Medical care is needed right away. Cells in the brain die if they are without oxygen for more than a few minutes.
There are two main types of stroke:
- Ischemic—blood flow is blocked; this is the most common type of stroke
- Hemorrhagic—bleeding in the brain
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.http://services.epnet.com/getimage.aspx?imageiid=46824682si55551195.jpgsi55551195.jpgNULLjpgBrain w /h & i strokeNULL\\filer01a\Intellect\images\si55551195.jpgNULL21NULL2004-03-042943904682_T1643467625405Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
An ischemic stroke is caused by a blockage in blood vessels of the brain. This may be caused by:
- A clot from another part of the body breaks free, travels to the brain, and becomes trapped in a blood vessel.
- A clot that forms in an artery of the brain.
- An inner wall of an artery of the brain tears.
This problem is more common in older adults and people with a family history of stroke. Health issues that can increase the risk of stroke are:
- History of transient ischemic attacks (TIA or mini-strokes)
- Obesity or metabolic syndrome
- Type 2 diabetes or prediabetes
- High blood pressure
- High cholesterol
- Heart diseases or injury such as a past heart attack, atrial fibrillation, or enlarged heart
- Diseases of blood vessels such as carotid artery stenosis or atherosclerosis
Habits that can raise the risk of stroke are:
Symptoms happen suddenly. A person may have:
- Drooping or numbness on one side of the face
- Arm or leg weakness on one side of the body
- Problems speaking
- Problems with balance, or a feeling of spinning when a person is still
- Problems chewing or swallowing
- Hearing and vision problems
- Sensory changes
- Problems breathing
Note: These are signs of an emergency. Call for medical help right away if someone is having signs of a stroke.
A stroke needs to be diagnosed quickly. The doctor will look for signs of nerve or brain problems. Blood tests may be done to look for clotting problems.
Images of the brain and blood flow can be taken with:
- CT scan
- Angiogram—to look for clots in blood vessels in the brain
- CT angiogram
- MRI scan
- Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
- Doppler ultrasound
The heart will also be checked with:
Emergency care will be needed. The goal is to break up the clot and restore blood flow as quickly as possible. Restoring blood flow will halt more damage to the brain. The clot may be broken up or removed with medicine or a procedure.
A medicine called tPA can quickly dissolve blood clots. It will restore blood flow and increase the chance of a full recovery. The treatment needs to be given within 3 to 4 hours of the start of stroke symptoms. This is why it is important to get medical care as soon as symptoms start.
Medicine called blood thinners may also be given. It can stop new clots and slow or stop the growth of clots that are already there.
Endovascular procedures can deliver treatment straight to the area. It may be needed for clots that are large, block a large area, or do not respond to medicine. A catheter (tube) is passed through blood vessels until it reaches the blocked artery. Once there the doctor may:
- Insert medicine like tPA directly into clot
- Remove the clot through tubes—this is called mechanical thrombectomy
- Place a mesh tube called a stent to prop open the blood vessel—may also release medicine to stop clots from forming
Early treatment can prevent long term problems. A treatment plan will be made to prevent future strokes.
Damage caused by the stroke cannot be reversed. Long term effects will depend on where the brain injury happened and how much was damaged. Therapy may be needed to regain skills or adapt to changes. Rehabilitation may include:
- Physical therapy—to improve movement
- Occupational therapy—to help with daily tasks and self care
- Speech therapy—to improve swallowing and speech
- Psychological therapy—to address behavioral changes and provide support
The risk of stroke can be lowered by:
- Managing chronic health problems, such as high blood pressure and diabetes
- Maintaining a healthy weight through diet and exercise
- Eating a diet that is low in fat and cholesterol and rich in whole grains, fruits, and vegetables
- Not smoking
- Limiting alcohol
- Effects of stroke. Johns Hopkins Medicine website. Available at: https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/stroke/effects-of-stroke.
- Ischemic strokes (clots). American Stroke Association website. Available at: American Stroke Association website. Available at: https://www.stroke.org/en/about-stroke/types-of-stroke/ischemic-stroke-clots#.Vk3ipE2FPIU.
- Long-term management of stroke. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/management/long-term-management-of-stroke.
- Mendelson, S.A. and Prabhakaran, S. Pace of progress in stroke thrombolysis: are hospitals running to stand still? Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, 2017; 10 (1): e003438.
- Neuroimaging for acute stroke. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/evaluation/neuroimaging-for-acute-stroke.
- Stroke (acute management). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/management/stroke-acute-management-1.
- 1/18/2017 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance https://www.dynamed.com/prevention/cardiovascular-disease-possible-risk-factors: Emdin, C.A., Odutayo, A., et al. Meta-analysis of anxiety as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. American Journal of Cardiology, 2016; 118 (4): 511-519.
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